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Al qadisiyah

al qadisiyah

Auf TripAdvisor finden Sie alles für Al Qadisiyah Province, Irak: das größte Verzeichnis von Bewertungen von Hotels, Restaurants und Sehenswürdigkeiten . Old maps of Al-Qadisiyah on Old Maps Online. Discover the past of Al-Qadisiyah on historical maps. Aktueller Kader Al Qadisiyah mit Spieler-Statistiken, Spielplan, Marktwerte, News und Gerüchten zum Verein aus der Professional League.

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Hussain Fadhel Ali H. Carte de la situation du paradis terrestre, et des pais habitez par les patriarches 1: Beliebiges Reiseziel in Al Qadisiyah Province entdecken. Khaled Ali Al Qahtani. Type the place name in the search box to find the exact location. Mohammad Al Fahad M. Hamad Rashid Abdulkarim Aman. Khaled Ebrahim Hajiah K. Syria and the Provinces to the Persian Gulf.

Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 7 February Al-Qadsiah FC — current squad.

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Views Read Edit View history. He then retreated to the region near the Arabian Desert. The reinforcements reached Iraq in October , and Abu Ubaid assumed the command of the army and defeated the Sassanids at the Battle of Namaraq near modern-day Kufa.

Then, in the Battle of Kaskar , he recaptured Hira. The Persians launched another counterattack and defeated the Muslims at Battle of the Bridge , which killed Abu Ubaid, and the Muslims suffered heavy losses.

Muthanna then assumed command of the army and withdrew the remnant of his forces, about strong, across the Euphrates. The Persian commander Bahman also known as Dhu al-Hajib [14] was committed to driving the Muslims away from Persian soil but was restrained from pursuing the defeated Muslims after being called back by Rustum to Ctesiphon to help in putting down the revolt against him.

Muthanna retreated near the frontier of Arabia and called for reinforcements. After getting sufficient reinforcements, he re-entered the fray and camped at the western bank of Euphrates, where a Persian force intercepted him and was defeated.

Sometimes it was occupied by the Persians and sometimes by the Muslims. This "tit-for-tat" struggle continued until emperor Yazdegerd III consolidated his power and sought alliance with Heraclius in in an effort to prepare for a massive counterattack.

Heraclius married his daughter to Yazdegerd III, in accordance with Roman tradition to seal an alliance.

Heraclius then prepared for a major offensive in the Levant. Meanwhile, Yazdegerd ordered a concentration of massive armies to reclaim Iraq for good.

This was supposed to be a well-coordinated attack by both emperors to annihilate the power of their common enemy, Caliph Umar.

When Heraclius launched his offensive in May , Yazdegerd could not coordinate on time, so the plan was not carried out as planned.

Meanwhile, Umar allegedly had knowledge of this alliance and devised his own plan to counteract it. He wanted to finish the Byzantines first, and later deal with the Persians separately.

Accordingly he sent soldiers as reinforcements to his army in Yarmouk who were facing off the Byzantine army.

However, Vahan, witnessing fresh reinforcements for the Muslims arriving daily from Madinah, felt compelled to attack the Muslim forces before they got too strong.

Heraclius's imperial army was annihilated at Battle of Yarmouk in August , three months before the battle of Qadisiyyah, therefore ending the Roman Emperor's offensive in the west.

Undeterred, Yazdegerd continued to execute his plan of attack and concentrated armies near his capital Ctesiphon.

A large force was put under the control of veteran general Rostam and was cantoned at Valashabad near Ctesiphon.

Receiving news of preparations for a massive counter-attack, Umar ordered Muthana to abandon Iraq and retreat to the edge of the Arabian Desert.

The Iraqi campaign would be addressed at a later date. Caliph Umar started raising new armies from all over Arabia with the intention of re-invading Iraq.

In May , Saad was instructed to march to Northern Arabia with a contingent of 4, men from his camp at Sisra near Madinah and take over command of the Muslim army, and immediately march onwards to Iraq.

Because of his inexperience as a general, he was instructed by Caliph Umar to seek the advice of experienced commanders before making critical decisions.

Umar sent orders to him to halt at Al-Qadisiyyah, a small town 30 miles from Kufah. Umar continued to remotely issue strategic orders and commands to his army throughout the campaign.

Due to a shortage of manpower, Umar decided to lift the ban on the ex-apostate tribes of Arabia from participating in state affairs.

The army raised was not professional but was a volunteer force composed of newly recruited contingents from all over Arabia.

After a decisive victory against the Byzantine army at the Yarmouk, Umar sent immediate orders to Abu Ubaidah to send a contingent of veterans to Iraq.

A force of 5, veterans of Yarmouk were also sent to Qadisiyyah, they arrived on the second day of the battle Qadisiyyah. This proved to be a major turning point, and a major morale booster for the muslim army.

The battle of Qadissiyyah was fought predominantly between Umar and Rostam, rather than between Saad and Rostam.

Coincidentally, bulk of the Sassanid army was also made up of new recruits since the bulk of regular Sassanid forces was destroyed during the Battle of Walaja and the Ullais.

Qadisiyya was a small town on the west bank of the river Ateeq, a branch of the Euphrates. Al-Hira , ancient capital of Lakhmid Dynasty, was about thirty miles west.

According to present day geography, it is situated at southwest of al-Hillah and Kufah in Iraq. Modern estimates suggest that the size of Sassanid forces was about 50,—, strong and Muslims around 30, strong after being reinforced by the Syrian contingent on second day of the battle.

These figures come from studying the logistical capabilities of the combatants, the sustainability of their respective bases of operations, and the overall manpower constraints affecting the Sassanids and Arabs.

Most scholars, however, agree that the Sassanid army and their allies outnumbered the Muslim Arabs by a sizable margin.

The Persian army reached Qadisiyyah in July and established their highly fortified camps on the eastern bank of the Ateeq river. There was a strong bridge over the Ateeq river, the only crossing to the main Sassanid camps, although they had boats available in reserve to cross the river.

The Sassanid Persian army, about 60, strong, fell into three main categories, infantry , heavy cavalry , and the Elephant corps.

The Elephant corps was also known as the Indian corps, for the elephants were trained and brought from Persian provinces in India.

On 16 November , the Sassanid army crossed over the west bank of Ateeq, and Rostam deployed his 45, infantry in four divisions, each about meters apart from the other.

At Qadisiyyah, about 33 elephants were present, eight with each of the four divisions of army. The Sassanid Persians' right wing was commanded by Hormuzan, the right center by Jalinus, the rear guard by Piruzan, and the left wing by Mihran.

Rostam himself was stationed at an elevated seat, shaded by a canopy, near the west bank of the river and behind the right center, where he enjoyed a wide view of the battlefield.

Rostam placed men at certain intervals between the battlefield and the Sassanid capital, Ctesiphon, to transmit information. In July , the main Muslim army marched from Sharaf to Qadisiyya.

After establishing camp, organizing defenses, and securing river heads, Saad sent parties inside Suwad to conduct raids.

Saad was continuously in contact with Caliph Umar, to whom he sent a detailed report of the geographical features of the land where the Muslims encamped and the land between Qaddasiyyah, Madinah, and the region where the Persians were concentrating their forces.

The Muslim army at this point was about 30, strong, including 7, cavalry. Its strength rose to 36, strong once it was reinforced by the contingent from Syria and local Arabs allies.

Saad was suffering from sciatica , and had boils all over his body. He took a seat in the old royal palace at Qaddasiyyah from where he directed the war operations and had a good view of the battlefield.

He appointed as his deputy Khalid ibn Arfatah, who carried out his instructions to the battlefield. The Rashidun infantry was deployed in four corps, each with its own cavalry regiment stationed at the rear for counter-attacks.

Each corps was positioned about meters from the other. The army was formed on a tribal and clan basis, so that every man fought next to well-known comrades and so that tribes were held accountable for any weakness.

The Muslim forces wore gilded helmets similar to the silver helmets of the Sassanid soldiers. Mail was commonly used to protect the face, neck, and cheeks, either as an aventail from the helmet or as a mail coif.

Heavy leather sandals as well as Roman type sandal boots were also typical of the early Muslim soldiers. Armor included hardened leather scale or lamellar armour and mail.

Infantry soldiers were more heavily armored than the horsemen. Hauberks and large wooden or wickerwork shields were used as well as long-shafted spears.

Infantry spears were about 2. Swords used were a short infantry weapon like the Roman gladius and the Sassanid long sword.

Both were worn hung from a baldric. Bows were about two meters long when unbraced, about the same size as the famous English longbow , with a maximum range of about meters.

Early Muslim archers were infantry archers who proved very effective against the opposing cavalry. The troops at the Sassanid Persian front were lightly armored compared to the Rashidun troops deployed at the Byzantine front.

The Arabs were camped at Qadisiyyah with 30, men since July For the next three months, negotiations between Arabs and Persians continued.

On Caliph Umar's instructions, Saad sent an embassy to court of Persia with instructions to convert the Sassanid emperor to Islam or to get him to agree to paying Jaziyah.

During one meeting, Yazdgerd III, intent on humiliating the Arabs, ordered his servants to place a basket full of earth on the head of Asim ibn Amr , a member of the emissary.

The optimistic Arab ambassador interpreted this gesture with the following words: Knights - Anyang KGC Link Tochigi Brex - Rizing Fukuoka Vostok Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Universitet Yugra Western Sydney Wanderers - Brisbane Roar Omiya Ardija - Montedio Yamagata Gyeongnam FC - Pohang Steelers Parma - Kalij Basket Uralmash - Khimki-Podmoscowie Barbora Zahlavova Strycova - Sofia Kenin Katerina Siniakova - Alison Riske

Asian Cup Winners' Cup. No Position Player Nation 1. Hatem Belal on loan from Al-Fayha. Ahmed Al-Zain on loan from Al-Ahli.

Waleed Shenqeeti on loan to Al-Washm. Fahad Al-Johani on loan to Al-Batin. Ahmed Al-Fahmi on loan to Al-Washm. Mohammed Fatau on loan to Al-Kuwait.

Wesam Wahib on loan to Al-Kawkab. Stanley Ohawuchi on loan to Ajman. Asian Cup Winners' Cup Runner up: Saudi Professional League seasons s —77 —78 —79 — Rostam now armed himself with a double set of complete armour and requisite weapons.

Both armies stood face to face about meters apart. Rashidun's army was deployed facing northeast, while the Sassanid army was deployed facing southwest and had the river at its rear.

The battle began with personal duels; [10] Muslim Mubarizun stepped forward and many were slain on both sides.

Muslim chronicles record several heroic duels between the Sassanid and Muslim champions. The purpose of these duels was to lower the morale of the opposing army by killing as many champions as possible.

Having lost several in duels, Rostam began the battle by ordering his left wing to attack the Muslims' right wing.

The Persian attack began with heavy showers of arrows, which caused considerable damage to the Muslims' right wing. Elephants led the charge from the Persian side.

Abdullah ibn Al-mutim, the Muslim commander of right wing ordered Jareer ibn Abdullah cavalry commander of the right wing to deal with the Sassanid elephants.

However, Jareer's cavalry was stopped by the Sassanid heavy cavalry. The elephants continued to advance, and the Muslim infantry began to fall back.

Saad sent orders to Ath'ath ibn Qais, commander of the center right cavalry to check the Sassanid cavalry advance. Meanwhile, Saad sent orders to Zuhra ibn Al-Hawiyya, commander of Muslims right center, to dispatch an infantry regiment to reinforce the infantry of the right wing.

An infantry regiment was sent under Hammal ibn Malik that helped the right wing infantry launch a counterattack against the Sassanids.

The Sassanid left wing retreated under the frontal attack by infantry of Muslims right wing reinforced by infantry regiment from right center and flanking attack by Muslims cavalry reinforced by a cavalry regiment from right center.

With his initial attacks repulsed, Rostam ordered his right center and right wing to advance against the Muslim Cavalry. The Muslim left wing and left center were first subjected to intense archery, followed by a charge of the Sassanid right wing and right center.

Once again, the Elephant corps led the charge. The Muslim cavalry, on left wing and left center, already in panic due to the charge of the elephants, were driven back by the combined action of Sassanid heavy cavalry and the elephants.

Saad sent word to Asim ibn Amr, commander of the left center, to overpower the elephants. Asim ordered his archers to kill the men on elephants and ordered infantry to cut the girths of the saddles.

The tactic worked, as the Persians retired the elephants, the muslims counterattacked. The Sassanid army's center right retreated followed by the retreat of the entire right wing.

By afternoon the Persian attacks on the Muslim left wing and left center were also beaten back. Saad, in order to exploit this opportunity, ordered a yet another counterattack.

The Muslim cavalry then charged from the flanks with full force, a tactic known as Karr wa farr. The Muslim attacks were eventually repulsed by Rostam, who plunged into the fray personally and is said to have received several wounds.

The fighting ended at dusk. The battle was inconclusive, with considerable losses on both sides. On 17 November, like the previous day, Saad decided to start the day with Mubarizuns to inflict maximum morale damage on the Persians.

At noon, while these duelings were still going on, reinforcements from Syria arrived for the Muslim army.

First, an advance guard under Al-Qa'qa ibn Amr at-Tamimi arrived, followed by the main army under its commander Hisham ibn Utbah , nephew of Saad.

This strategy had a very demoralizing effect the Persian army. All four Muslim corps surged forward, but the Sassanids stood firm and repulsed repeated attacks.

The disorganization of the Sassanid cavalry left their left center infantry vulnerable. Saad ordered the Muslims to intensify the attack.

Rostam again personally led a counterattack against the Muslims, but no breakthrough could be achieved. At dusk, the two armies pulled back to their camps.

On 18 November, Rostam wanted a quick victory, before more Muslim reinforcements could arrive. The Elephant corps was once again in the front of the Sassanid army, giving him the advantage.

Pressing this advantage, Rostam ordered a general attack along the Muslim front, using his full force. All four Sassanid corps moved forward and struck the Muslims on their front.

The Muslims sustained heavy losses before their archers retaliated. The Persian elephant corps once again led the charge, supported by their infantry and cavalry.

At the approach of the Sassanid elephants, the Muslim riders once again became unnerved, leading to confusion in the Muslim ranks.

The Sassanids pressed the attack, and the Muslims fell back. Through the gaps that had appeared in the foe's ranks as a result of the Sassanid advance, Rostam sent a cavalry regiment to capture the old palace where Saad the Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim forces was stationed.

The strategy of Rostam was that the Muslim Commander-in-Chief should be killed or taken captive with a view to demoralizing the Muslims.

However, a strong cavalry contingent of the Muslims rushed to the spot and drove away the Sassanid cavalry. Saad determined that there was only one way to win the battle: After a long struggle, the Muslims finally succeeded in mutilating the elephants sufficiently to be driven off.

The frightened elephant corps rushed through the Sassanid ranks and made for the river. By noon no elephants were left on the battlefield.

To exploit this situation even further, Saad ordered a general attack, and the two armies clashed once again. In the absence of the Persian elephants, the Muslims once again brought up camels camouflaged as monsters.

The trick did not work this time, and the Persian horses stood their ground. The third day of the battle was the hardest for both armies.

There were heavy casualties on both sides, and the battlefield was strewn with the dead bodies of fallen warriors. In spite of fatigue after three days of battle, the armies continued the fight, which raged through the night and ending only with the dawn.

It became a battle of stamina, with both sides on the verge of breaking. The strategy of Sa'd was to wear down the Persians and snatch victory from them.

At sunrise of 19 November , the fighting had ceased, but the battle was still inconclusive. Qa'qa, with the consent of Sa'd, was now acting as a field commander of the Muslim troops.

He is reported to have addressed his men as follows:. The Sassanids were taken by surprise at the resumption of battle.

The Sassanids left wing and left center were pushed back. On the final day, Rostam was slain, which heralded the defeat of the Persians.

Two different accounts have been told of his mysterious death:. Meanwhile, in the middle of a sandstorm, Rostam was found dead with over wounds on his body.

The Sassanid right wing counter-attacked and gained its lost position, as the Muslims' left wing retreated back to their original position. In the afternoon the Muslims mounted another attack.

Rostam lay next to a camel to shelter himself from the storm, while some weapons, such as axes, maces, and swords had been loaded on the camel.

Many Persian soldiers were slain in the chaos, many escaped through the river, and finally the rest of the army surrendered. The Sassanid front, after putting up a last resistance, finally collapsed; part of the Sassanid army retreated in an organized manner while the rest retreated in panic towards the river.

At this stage Galinus took command of what was left of the Sassanid army and claimed control of the bridge head, succeeding in getting the bulk of the army across the bridge safely.

The battle of Qaddisiyyah was over, and the Muslims were victorious. Saad sent the cavalry regiments in various directions to pursue the fleeing Persians.

The stragglers that the Muslims met along the way were either killed or taken captive. Washington Capitals - Columbus Blue Jackets.

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Al qadisiyah -

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